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It has been observed that there is a large span of influence on the Submachine series that originates from ancient civilizations and cultures. Many theories of the Submachine says that it can travel through time so that could be the explanation for these relics and temples. another explanation is because the Submachine seems to be able to "absorb" things into itself, old abandoned temples that are far away from people and hard to find would be perfect to spread into. Yet a third option is that the people who built the Submachine used ancient "magic" to help in the building of the Submachine (like the Chronon in the Edge), although the true explanation may be some combination of the three.


Voir aussi : Scarabé.

Dans Submachine 0: The Ancient Adventure l'intérieur du temple est constitué de sculptures de scarabés dans certaines salles dont certaines en or.

These beetles are called Scarabs, amulets that represent the cycle of the sun through the sky during a day, and as such they were related to Ra.[1] They were often used as seals, carrying the names of important people. Some pharaohs even published commemorative scarabs to praise themselves.[2]

A statue of a jackal, who is most likely the Egyptian god Anubis, blocks the entrance to the chamber containing the Wisdom Gem in the Temple. Similar statues are located in the Ancient section and in the Root. Anubis was the divine embalmer and one of the mighty gods of the underworld.

In Submachine 6: The Edge, in the Tunnels area, there is a portrait of the Egyptian god Thoth. This engraving can also be found at a Secret Location around the corner outside of The Tunnels. There, information can be read about Thoth; Thoth was the Egyptian god of magic, writing, science and also helped with judging the dead. Thoth, in ancient Egypt, was worshiped mainly in the city of Hermopolis. Thoth is usually shown with the head of an ibis and the body of a man.

In the Chronon area Thoth's name is on the hour glass wheel, written with hieroglyphs. The Chronon's walls themselves are covered in hieroglyphs. Closer inspection reveals that they display the same sentences over and over again.



In Submachine 0, there are two sculptures of dragons that flank the door leading into the "temple". Asian dragons were usually serpent-like, wingless, and had clawed feet. They were usually associated with water and rain.


Read more:The Study, Taijitu...

In Submachine Network Exploration Experience, in the location called The Study, we find the symbol ☯ .This is called a taijitu (Chinese: 太極圖, read: tài jí tú) or more commonly the Ying and Yang symbol (Chinese:陰陽, read: yīnyáng).


The Taijitu is one of the oldest and best-known life symbols in the world, but few understand its full meaning. It represents one of the most fundamental and profound theories of ancient Taoist philosophy. At its heart are the two poles of existence, which are opposite but complementary. The light, white Yang moving up blends into the dark, black Yin moving down. Yin and Yang are dependent opposing forces that flow in a natural cycle, always seeking balance. Though they are opposing, they are not in opposition to one another. As part of the Tao, they are merely two aspects of a single reality. Each contains the seed of the other, which is why we see a black spot of Yin in the white Yang and vice versa. They do not merely replace each other but actually become each other through the constant flow of the universe.

Although under this headline, the taijitu isn't an solely Asian concept. It was also a symbol often used by the Celts. However, they used primarily used it as a particle in their art, for example a center of a flower. This is also less widely known, and the room had several Buddhist symbols with the two taijitus linking it to the East.

It should be noted that the two taijitus in the Study are mirrored, so that cutting them to pieces and interchanging the pieces would result in a black and a white circle.


Read more; Wheel of Dharma, Dharmacakra (in wikipedia), Mudra...


The Wheel of Dharma represents the eight rules on the path to the enlightenment. It has been seen is the Study and in Liz's Ship.

Fichier:Big wheel of dharma.png

Further more, two quotes of Siddhartha Gautama or Gautama Buddha[3] can be found inside the Sanctuary. The first is;

Fichier:Wheel white.png


The second is only a fragment of a longer quote, while this shorter version can also be found by itself;


The full version goes as it follows; "Awake. Be the witness of your thoughts. You are what observes, not what you observe.".[4]


These quotes are carved into two Buddha statues, which are set in two different stances from the mudrā (Sanskrit:मुद्रा), which are poses and hand gestures from Hindu and Buddha yoga and various other rituals. The one in the right end of the Sanctuary is shown in Dhyāna Mudrā or the meditational mudrā, which has the hand set on your lap, palms facing upwards. Dhyāna Mudrā shows utter concentration, and meditation on the Good Law.


The other statue seems to be making the Varada and Abhaya Mudrā, but switching the normal positions of the hands. Abhaya Mudrā is the "Mudrā of no-fear", which represents protection and dispelment of fear. This is the Mudrā that Buddha used to calm down a raging elephant. Varada Mudrā on the other hand is a sign of charity, which fits; the hand carries one of the stone needed for the puzzle. Varada is usually done with the left hand, while Abhaya is done with the right hand. In Submachine 7: The Core, however, the hands were represented the other way around.

One other Buddhist statue can be found, in the Submachine Network Exploration Experience location; The Altar. In the altar there is a statue of a Buddha doing the Vitarka Mudrā, the mudrā of discussion and Buddhist teaching.

Further more, each of the Buddha statues sit in the same asana (आसन), Padmāsana (पद्मासन) better known as Lotus Position. [5]

It would also seem that the right statue of Buddha in the sanctuary is modeled after the Great Buddha (大仏, daibutsu) in the Japanese Kōtoku-in temple (高徳院). However, the Great Buddha of Kōtoku-in is over thirteen meters high and weighs over 120 tons.[6] The Great Buddha statue portrays the Amitābha Buddha. This is somewhat incoherent as the quote under it is from Gautama Buddha.

Central AmericaModifier

32 Chambers is filled with Mesoamerican architecture, and the ending calendar is Aztec. There are also several statues of Mayan gods, including the Mayan god of suicide.



See also; Aztec Sun Stone

The calendar seen in the end of the Submachine: 32 Chambers, is actually an Aztec calendar stone. It is an exact replica of the Stone of Sun (Spanish; Piedra del Sol) or Cuauhxicalli (Eagle Bowl).

It was excavated in the Zócalo, Mexico City's main square, on December 17, 1790[7]. It represents the months used by the Aztecs, that were identical in system to the Mayan calendar, but named differently. It was during the reign of the 6th Aztec monarch in 1479 that this stone was carved and dedicated to the principal Aztec deity: the sun. The stone has both mythological and astronomical significance. It weighs almost 25 tons, has a diameter of just under 12 feet, and a thickness of 3 feet.[8]

The face in the middle is the Aztec sun god, Lord of Heaven, Tonatiuh. Although this is a little obscure in the game, the deity's tongue is hanging out. This represents his desire to drink the blood from human sacrifices.

The four slots to which the bacab plates are attached to, represent the four Olin, the previous epochs, also known as Suns. The out-most ring in turn represents the twenty named days.




See also; Tzolk'in, Mesoamerican Long Count Calendar

In the final scene of the Submachine: 32 Chamber you can actually see a calendar, although this particular calendar is modelled after an Aztec one. However, the dates involved in the game - 21st of December 2012 and 21th of December 7137 - are a reference to the Mayan long count calendar.

To understand the Mayan calendar we must first go to the basics; Mayan view of time was a cyclical one. The Maya had a tremendous amount of different calendars, that were all cyclical. Some were based on the Moon some on Venus, some even cycled mystical Night Lords.

There was a more widely utilized system; the Tzolk'in. In it there were the trecena - a cycle of thirteen days - along with the named twenty days. Together they were counted like this; 1 Imix', 2 Ik'.... Eventually, the trecena end before the named days, in 13 B'en, the next day would be 1 Ix. It will continue so until after 260 days we are back at 1 Imix'.


Obviously when cycles of under a year were not enough to count time in a sensible manner, so the Maya had to make other plans. Thus the long count was invented. The long count is an vigedecimal system, although there is an small inconsistency, to which we'll get to later.

The smallest unit in this calendar is one day known as k'in. The next larger unit is winal, which consist of 20 k'ins and is 20 days long as such. The following unit is tun which has 18 winals in it (not 20) and as such also 360 k'ins. This was probably done to achieve somewhat year long calendar.

The following units are k'atun and b'ak'tun which both are multiplied by twenty (K'atun is 7200 days long and b'ak'tun is 144000 days long). The vigedecimal base is used up the following units; piktun, kalabtun, k'inchiltun and alautun, although these units were all created by the Mayanists and were never used by Maya themselves.

Now we are getting to the point. It is a matter of dispute whether piktun has 13 or 20 b'ak'tuns in it, as Mayan calendars have ended in 13th b'ak'tun. If it truly does end in the 13th b'ak'tun, it is happening in 21st of December 2012. As the Mayan truly were good at making prophecies and in math and sciences as well, this has lead some to believe that this is the date of the end of the world.

The long count calendar starts on the creation day of this world (which actually is the fourth one), which is August 11, 3114 BCE. From this to the start of a new piktun are 1872000 days. This is 5125 years, 93.75 days (3 months, 3 days, 18 hours). This would set the end of the next world somewhere around March 25th 7138, in spite of what the game claims (12th of December 7137).

Gods and deitiesModifier


See also; Mayan Gods and Deities in the Subnet

There were many different deities represented in the Submachine: 32 Chambers, in fact they were shown in a far larger scale than any other specific pantheon.

Three specific deities were mentioned by name, and one appears in a name of an item. The first deity to appear is Ixtab, who is the Mayan god of suicide. She had the role of taking certain groups of people to feast under the World Tree.

Fichier:Chak Chel.png

The next two to be named are Ah Puch and Chak Chel. Ah Puch is the Mayan god of Death and the rules of Mitnal, their lowest Underworld. Chak Chel on the other hand is the god of midwifery and childbirth, this while she is also the goddess to the World in a great flood.

The Bacabs are a group of four gods, children of Itzamnaj and Ixchel. Chak Chel is believed to be a personification of Ixchel. The Bacabs held up the world on their shoulders, similar to the Greek Atlas, however, the Bacab did not complain.



See also; Mayan hieroglyphs

Mayan hieroglyphs were the method of writing in the ancient Mayan society. It seems that the hieroglyphs were used especially to write the Ch'olti' language, which appears to have been the Mayan lingua franca. When other Maya languages were written, these glyphs were generally used. Nowadays we can decipher almost all of the Mayan language, with some accuracy.

The Mayan hieroglyphs are logosyllabic - they can be both a syllable and a single word. For example, the calendaric glyph MANIK’ was also used to represent the syllable chi. (It's customary to write logographic readings in all capitals and phonetic readings in italics.)

Glyphs are read from left to right and top to bottom, however, they were usually organized into columns of two glyphs.

When two syllabic glyphs are joined, the upper is read first. If they both end in the same vowel, the last vowel disappears. For example na + ma => nam (Fichier:Naglyph.png + Fichier:Maglyph.png => Fichier:Airglyph2.png)

In the menu the glyphs seen can all be located in the wikipedia picture of Palenque glyphs. Many of the glyphs in the game appear to be taken from Mayan calendar and Codexes, and given a new meaning. For example, the symbol Fichier:Chakchelglyph.png looks almost exactly the same as the symbol Fichier:Waxglyph.png, which refers to a day in the Tzolk'in calendar, kib'. Similar cases are Fichier:Ahpuchglyph.png, Fichier:Toothglyph.png and Fichier:Moleglyph.pngwhich are similar to the glyphs Fichier:Rainstormglyph.png, Fichier:Eb'glyph.png and Fichier:Manik'glyph.png respectively, and all correspond to a Tzolk'in day. All of the mentioned symbols follow the simplified style of writing the names of the days using in various Codexes.

This might mean that the version of the Mayan language in the Submachine is a different one than in our world.

List of the named hieroglyphsModifier

Hieroglyph Given translation Notes
Fichier:Ahpuchglyph.pngAh PuchAh Puch, Ah Pukuh
Fichier:Airglyph.pngAirU... (Fichier:3rdpersonglyph.png), which is also a suffix with the meaning of the third person (he, she, it) or the third person possessive (his, hers, its)[9]
Fichier:Airglyph2.pngAirnam, (na(Fichier:Naglyph.png) + ma (Fichier:Maglyph.png))
Fichier:Chakchelglyph.pngChak ChelChak Chel
Fichier:Drinkglyph.pngDrink (Fichier:Niglyph.png)[10]
Fichier:Greetingglyph.pngGreetingThis glyph can be found in the picture of the Palenque glyphs above. It seems to refer to a date.[11]
Fichier:Ixtabglyph.pngIxtabIxtab, note that the last glyph appears to be the same as the one used for Chak Chel (Fichier:Chakchelglyph.png) or alternatively a ka (Fichier:Kaglyph.png)
Fichier:Deniedglyph.pngRefutation, denial, rejection (Fichier:Niglyph.png)[12]
Fichier:Windglyph.pngWindma..., note that ma (Fichier:Maglyph2.png) is an negative prefix and suffix

List of unnamed hieroglyphsModifier

Hieroglyph Notes
Fichier:Menuglyph1.pngCan be found in the game menu of Submachine: 32 Chambers as well as this picture.
Fichier:Menuglyph2.pngAs per above, the head prefix can be read as u.[13].
Fichier:Menuglyph3.pngAs per above, the head prefix can be interpreted to mean 4[14]
Fichier:Menuglyph6.pngAs per above, it seems that this glyph refers to a date.[15]
Fichier:Menuglyph7.pngAs per above, it seems that this glyph refers to a date (0th day of 0th month of twenty days (ChuwenDay name)[16]
Fichier:Startglyphs10.pngThis is the glyph 50px, sak, which means pure or white.[17]



In the Submachine: 32 Chambers, one can find a relief of a human, seemingly steering a rocket ship. This type of relief has caused multiple conspiracy theories across the globe. They have even been seen as proof of interstellar travel of other intelligent species to Earth. Further more, it is speculated from this picture that the Maya had the technology to fly.

In 1952 Ruz Lhuillier was excavating the staircase of the Pyramid Temple when he found a sealed passageway that led to the burial crypt and sarcophagus of King K'inich Janaab' Pakal of Palenque. This was the first burial crypt found in Central America, let alone in a pyramid, and fueled a debate that the Mayas were in some way connected to Egypt. The lid of the sarcophagus is the depiction of King K'inich Janaab' Pakal .

The lid has been theorized to actually depict K'inich Janaab' Pakal falling through the Milky Way into the Underworld, Xibalba. The face behind him is the water god who guards Xibalba.



See also; Stela, Copán


Stelae are commemorative stone or wood statues, taller than they are wide. They usually have the name of the event or the deceaced if it occasion is a funeral. The stone slab also has a relief carved to it.

In Submachine: 32 Chambers, there is a replica of the Stela N of Copán, Honduras.

The Stela N was built to honour the fifteenth king of Copán, K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil, which roughly translates to Smoked Shell or Smoked Squirrel.

K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil ruled some years after Copán had a major setback; its thirteenth king, Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil, was captured and killed by the rebelling vassal nation, Quiriguá. K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil and his son did a lot of work regaining the power Copán.

Nazca cultureModifier

See also; Nazca Lines, Nazca culture...

In the Nazca Room of Submachine Network Exploration Experience is dedicated to the geoglyphs of Nazca. These huge formations, better known as the Nazca lines, were created by scraping of the dark layer of soil and revealing the lighter toned soil under it. these pictures are so big, that they can only be properly perceived from the air.


Their real purpose is unknown, but the local legends suggest that they were sacrificial sites for the Nazcan god of rain. Another popular theory is that the figures are astronomical starmaps, but there is not enough evidence to tell for sure.

In the Subnet the lines appear as petroglyphs, glowing blue light on the walls. Among them there are the Spider, Condor and Monkey.



See also; Olmec

The Submachine: 32 Chambers, there is an appearance of a piece of Olmec culture. In one of the 32 Chambers you can find an Olmec colossal head, which is the most widely recognized Olmec object.

The colossal heads are from 1.47 meters to 3.4 meters high, and have been estimated to weigh up to 50 tons. It is speculated that these head depict some sort of chieftains, dressed like players of Mesoamerican ballgames.

No two heads are the same, even when seventeen of them have been found. They were made from volcanic basalt, found in Tuxtlas mountains or Sierra de los Tuxtlas.



See also;Toltec, Chac Mool...

Chac Mools which literally means Thundering Paw is the given name to a type of Toltec statue. They were made by Toltecs and other American Indians in areas with heavy Toltec influence. Toltecs were held high by the Aztecs as their cultural predecessors, in a similar manner as Europe holds Rome and Greece as its predecessors.

The true name for these statues remain unknowns to this day. The Chac Mool depicts a human figure in a position of reclining with the head up and turned to one side, holding a tray over the stomach. The meaning of the position or the statue itself remains unknown.

These statues were often found in temples.

In Submachine 32 the Chac Mool hold a goblet that is initially empty. The hieroglyphs imply that the statue refuses to drink water. This is actually a clue, hinting that it will instead drink sand.


Fichier:Runes pattern.png

See also: Submachine Runes

The Submachine has many instances of runes in it. These runes are usually presented in a set of 19 runes, however some shorter versions have been seen. Some of these runes are exact replicas of real life runes, some are unlike any symbol in any writing system.

The most well know rune pattern of Subnet is of course the set of four runes, seen in Submachine: Future Loop Foundation and Submachine 2: The Lighthouse. It uses two runes from younger Futhark - ᛘ and ᛁ - but doesn't use two of the other runes. In the Dalecarlian runes from 1706, this word would translate as emni[18], but there is no indication this is the right transliteration.

However, runes are also used in many other parts of the Subnet, such as the Defense System as even in The Core.

Originally runes were used by different Germanic tribes. Runes were developed by them from Old Italic Alphabet[19] as their own writing system. Other peoples took their runes and made their own versions of them afterwards.

Traditionally runes were often used in various rituals.




There are horses in Submachine 0 and Submachine 4 that look similar to those of ancient Etruscan civilization. Horses were symbols of strength in the Etruscan society, and small metal figures were often placed in tombs and temples.



The Sanctuary of SNEE strongly resembles a classical temple, in that it has Doric columns and smaller structures often found in such temples. In Submachine 7: the Core, the Sanctuary has been decimated. Also, much of the architecture is repeated in Submachine 7: the Core. In Submachine 7, there are a few statues of Roman and Greek figures. Modèle:-

The statues represent the following figures.

  • Yet unknown lady
  • Augustus - A caesar of Rome
  • Eumachia - A priestess of Venus, and more importantly the matron of a cult that worshipped Augustus.
  • Tiberius - Yet another caesar of Rome, who ruled when Eumachia was alive.

Also, in Submachine Network Exploration Experience location 523, in a reference to the name of Gemini, who posted the theories there, two statues holding scrolls stand between the portal and the vertical spears. They have Ionic column tops touching the heads of the statues, while the columns extend up. 3 horizontal spears block access upward.

Middle EastModifier



There is a statue in Submachine 4, possibly of Murtaugh. This statue is also gold plated. There is a similar statue in the Pi Room of SNEE.

These statues both represent gods, although which exactly is unknown.



See also; Ziggurat...

In the coordinate 378 of Submachine Network Exploration Experience, there is a Ziggurat. A ziggurat is a Mesopotamian temple tower, resembling a pyramid.

Ziggurats were seen as resting places of gods by many, and as such they were not for common folk. Only priest could climb to these temples and attend to their duties.

It seems that there were shrines on top of the ziggurats. This is nicely represented by placing the portal to the top of the building.

The material of the ziggurat is not common Mesopotamian, however, but rather in the style of Mainframe of the Edge. Even the footsteps in the side of the tower are the same from there.

Popular cultureModifier

Amanita game studiosModifier

Mateusz Skutnik has stated that the blue mushrooms are a reference to the Amanita Design game studio.[20] This is not only because of the name of the studio; the logo of Amanita studio is a cap of an amanita mushroom as well.

Furthermore, many of their works, such as Saromost have mushrooms in them.

Amanita Design is an independent Czech game design studio, led by Jakub Dvorský. It was established in 2003. Their games tend to mix both drawn and photographic elements.

Covert Front SeriesModifier

Fichier:Covert Front mover.PNG

The Covert Front series of games created by PastelGames and written by Karol Konwerski and programmed by Mateusz Skutnik. The game takes place in an alternate universe, where the industrial revolution started in the mid 19th century and the First World War begun in 1904 after the assasinaion of the French Prime Minister. In the game a MI6 agent, code-named Kara, tries to find out the whereabouts of a revolutionary inventor Karl von Toten, who has created a machine that can make anything you can imagine out of thin air.

In addition to the references to the number 32, the were several shout-outs to Submachine in the last episode of the series called the Spark of Life. These include the following:

Fichier:Von Toten's device.PNG
  • A drawing found in a drawer in von Toten's office potrays five cubes, not suported by anything, organized in a plus-shape. This is very similar in nature to the structures in the Edge.
  • Before getting into von Toten's office, Kara has to get past a blue barrier, that works and looks excatly like the barrier erected by the forcefield emitter in the Submachine 7: The Core.
  • Von Toten is seen building a divice that looks excatly like the Coordinate Device found in Submachine 3: The Loop. This is interesting, as it has been stated that the device indeed isn't a natural part of the Loop, however, it was never finished by von Toten in the game.
  • Von Toten has built many different "projectable doors", that you can reflect of a surface and walk through. Thi is similar to the projector in the Submachine FLF.
  • von toten's lab in lisbon,portugal has corridors similar to submachine 5 rooms and submachine 2 lighthouse base rooms.


The Lost Plane (815 in SNEE) is an "easter egg" inspired by the TV show Lost.


For starters, the coordinate of the location, 815, is a reference to the Oceanic Flight 815. Flight 815 was the in Lost that crashed and initially took the survivors to the Island.

Further more a specific set of numbers is found in this area. These numbers appear frequently in the Lost series, much like 12 does in Submachine Series. The numbers are 4 8 15 16 21 and 44, which are core factors in the imaginary Valenzetti equation.

It is interesting to note that the fifth number of the series - 21 - is 12 backwards. As such it is a direct connection with the Submachine and Lost.




Apart from how the Submachine is made, the Basement's Spoon is referenced in Sub 3 in such a way that it's a direct resemblance to the spoon-bending scene from the Matrix.

In the scene, a bald boy explains that it is impossible to bend a spoon, as it doesn't exist.

The RingModifier

See also: The Ring

The Ring is an American horror film directed by Gregor "Gore" Verbinski in 2002. The film is a remake of the Japanese film called Ring (リング) that in turn was made in 1998. Both are based on the novel written by Kōji Suzuki (鈴木光司) in 1991.

The novel and the movie series focus on a video tape, that causes all those who have watched it to die after seven days. Each of the movies have been critical and financial successes.

The tiled room (in the movie, it was the observation room for the girl) in the Lighthouse looks the same, as well as the movie projector set up there.

The Lighthouse may even be the same.

The sound of the page-turning sounds the same as when we click on a note.

The material for the pages that the hospital thought she "drew" is the same for the pictures in Sub7 (or looks the same, in a positive exposure version).

The karma portals may be the same, since they are composed of rapidly spinning rings with a black center, just like the "ring" on the tape.

The last 3 numbers on the character Rachel's license plate in the movie are 461, which are also the coordinates for the Lighthouse's sewers in SNEE.


Blue energy lines and fields are inspired by Tron.


  1. Wikipedia, Scarab
  2. Commemorative scarabs of Amenhotep III - Wikipedia
  3. Spiritual - Quote 19
  4. Spiritual - Quote 19
  5. Lotus position - Wikipedia
  6. Kōtoku-in temple - Wikipedia
  7. Florescano, Enrico (2006). National Narratives in Mexico. Nancy T. Hancock (trans.), Raul Velasquez (illus.) (English-language edition of Historia de las historias de la nación mexicana, ©2002 [Mexico City:Taurus] ed.). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3701-0. OCLC 62857841.
  8. - Aztec calendar
  9. John Montgomery Dictionary of Maya Hieroglyphs
  10. John Montgomery Dictionary of Maya Hieroglyphs
  11. Introduction to Mayan Hieroglyphs by Harri Kettunen and Chritophe Helmke. Pages 46, 48 (50, 52).
  12. John Montgomery Dictionary of Maya Hieroglyphs
  13., article of Mayan script, The Mayan Syllabary.
  14. Introduction to Maya Hieroglyphs by Harri Kettunen and Christophe Helmke], page 46 (50).
  15. Introduction to Mayan Hieroglyphs by Harri Kettunen and Chritophe Helmke. Pages 46, 48 (50, 52).
  16. Introduction to Mayan Hieroglyphs by Harri Kettunen and Chritophe Helmke. Pages 46, 48 (50, 52).
  17. Introduction to Maya Hieroglyphs by Harri Kettunen and Christophe Helmke, pages 90 (94)
  18. Dalrunor.png, Wikipedia, the headline translates to "Chronologic table of Dal runes' different forms"
  19. Runic script - Wikipedia
  20. One of the secrets in the Super Secret Bonus Section

See AlsoModifier